Kidney stones are the most common problem we come across in the Urology clinic. Kidney stones are also a serious problem. They can cause a lot trouble by blocking the urine tube (ureter)causing very severe pain or they remain silent in the kidney getting bigger in size over a period of time. If not treated properly they can damage the kidneys gradually ending in renal failure.Kidney stones are aggregation of salts that are excreted in the urine. Most common kidney stones are aggregation of calcium oxalate salt crystals. Stones are formed by simple theory of crystallisation. When the salt e.g. Calcium oxalate concentration in the urine exceeds the solubility capacity of urine – crystals are formed. The crystals aggregate to form a stone. Also, there are promoters and inhibitors of stone which are produced by the body and in the diet, we take. The balance between these influence stone formations.
Stones are formed in the kidneys but they can get stuck anywhere in the urinary tract from the renal papilla to the urethral meatus. Medical management of stones is feasible for small stones. Surgical treatment of renal stones is needed for bigger and complicated stones. Surgical treatment is very much advanced. Latest techniques are RIRS (retrograde intrarenal surgery) and PCNL (Per-Cutaneous Nephro Lithotomy). In RIRS a flexible scope and LASER probe is used to break the stone. In PCNL a one-inch hole is made overlying the kidney region and stone inside the kidney accessed and removed. Also, the best way to prevent stone recurrence is complete clearance of stones in the kidney.