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A Guide to Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization


Invitro fertilization

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a term that almost everyone knows these days. However, not decades back, it was a mysterious infertility procedure that resulted in what was then referred to as “test-tube babies.” Louise Brown, who was born in England in 1978, was the very first such baby who was conceived outside of her mother’s womb by using this procedure.

Unlike the easier process of artificial insemination, wherein sperm is placed in the uterus and conception occurs normally, IVF includes combining sperm and eggs outside the body in a laboratory. When an unborn fetus or fetuses form, they are implanted in the uterus. IVF is a complicated procedure, and only a small percentage of infertile couples pursue it.

What Is Infertility?

In summary, infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant (conceive) after a year or more of unprotected sex. Since women’s fertility declines markedly with age, a few specialists assess and treat women aged 35 and up after 6 months of unprotected intercourse to confirm the reason for infertility. Women experiencing infertility should consult with a reproductive endocrinologist, a doctor who specializes in infertility management. Women who have suffered two or more spontaneous miscarriages may also benefit from the help of reproductive endocrinologists.

Pregnancy is the eventual outcome of a multi-step process. To become pregnant:

  • An egg must be discharged from either of a woman’s ovaries
  • Along the way, a man’s sperm must enter the egg to fertilize.
  • The fertilized egg must pass through a fallopian before reaching the uterus (womb).
  • The embryo must become attached to the uterine wall (implantation).

Infertility can be caused by a problem with one or more of these steps.

Impaired fecundity is a condition associated with infertility that describes women who have difficulty becoming pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term.

What Infertility Conditions Can IVF Treat?

If you or your partner are suffering from one of the following conditions, IVF may be a viable option:

  • Endometriosis
  • Sperm count deficiencies
  • Uterine or fallopian tube problems
  • Ovulation issues
  • Antibody issues that cause sperm or egg damage
  • Sperm’s lacking in the ability to penetrate or survive in cervical mucus.
  • Egg quality is poor.
  • A mother’s or father’s genetic disease
  • A fertility issue that cannot be explained

Except in cases of complete tubal blockage, IVF is never used as the first step in the treatment of infertility. It is instead reserved for cases where other methods, such as fertility medications, surgery, and artificial insemination, have failed.

If you think IVF might be right for you, do your research before committing to a treatment facility. Here are a few questions to be asked to the fertility facility staff before commencing treatment:

  • What is their pregnancy rate per embryo transfer?
  • What is their pregnancy rate for couples of your age and with similar fertility issues?
  • What is the live birth rate for all couples who have this procedure performed at their facility each year?
  • How many of those births are twins or other multiple births?
  • How much would the procedure cost, including the hormone treatments?
  • How much would it cost to store embryos, and how long can we keep them?
  • Do they take part in an egg donor initiative?


What Should I Expect?infertilityprocedures

The first step in IVF is to inject hormones into your body, which causes you to create several eggs each month rather than just one. After that, you would be tested to see if you are ready for egg retrieval.

You would be provided injections of a medication prior to the retrieval operation which also matures the developing eggs and initiates the ovulation process. It is imperative to remove the eggs at the exact moment they emerge from the follicles in the ovaries, so timing is crucial. The eggs will not develop normally if they are extracted too soon or too late. Before retrieving the eggs, your doctor may perform blood work and ultrasound to ensure they are at the proper developmental stage.

The IVF facility will give you specific guidelines to implement the night before and the day of the operation. Often the women who undergo this procedure are given pain killers and the option of being slightly sedated or completely anesthetized.

During the operation, your physician will use ultrasound to locate follicles in the ovary and detach the eggs with a hollow needle. The procedure is usually completed in less than 30 min, but it can take nearly an hour.

Your eggs will be merged in the laboratory immediately following the retrieval with your partner’s sperm, which they will have donated on the same day.

While you and your partner return home, the fertilized eggs are monitored in the facility to ensure proper growth. Depending on the facility, you could even have to wait up to several days for the embryo to reach the blastocyst stage.

When the blastocysts are ready, you could return to the IVF facility so that doctors can implant one or more of them into your uterus. This method is faster and less difficult than egg collection. The doctor will insert a flexible tube known as a catheter via your vagina and cervix and then into your uterus, where embryos would be implanted. Most IVF experts advise putting up to three embryos at a time to increase the likelihood of pregnancy. Nevertheless, this also makes it likely you could have multiple pregnancies, which can pose additional health risks to both you and the unborn children.

Post-operation, you would typically spend several hours in bed before being discharged 4 – 6 hours later. About two weeks after the embryo transfer, your doctor will most likely perform a pregnancy test on you.

Your physician may combine IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in cases in which the man’s sperm count is extremely low or there is poor motility (movement of the sperm). In this method, sperm is extracted from the sperm (or, in some cases, the testicles) and inserted directly into the egg. When a viable embryo has been created, it is introduced to the uterus via the standard IVF procedure.

How Effective Is IVF?

A number of factors influence IVF success rates, including:

  • The cause of infertility
  • Where the procedure was performed
  • Whether the eggs are fresh or frozen
  • Whether the eggs were donated or your own
  • Your age

Is There Anything Else to Take into Account with IVF?

Embryos that are not used after your first IVF attempt could be frozen for future use. If you have IVF for the second or third time, this will save you money. If you do not want your remaining embryos, you can make a donation to another infertile couple or request that the facility destroys the embryos. Before the facility can destroy or donate your embryos, it needs formal consent from you and your partner.

The age of a woman is a key factor in the success of IVF for just about any couple. The success rate rises as the number of egg transfers increases. As techniques improve and doctors gain more experience, the rate of success of IVF is continuing to increase in all age groups. To learn more about infertility and IVF treatment, please contact us at Dr. Mehta’s Hospitals.

Pediatric Nephrologist: A Kidney Specialist for Children


Who They Are?

Pediatric nephrologists care for children with kidney diseases and disorders from infancy to late adolescence, and sometimes up to young adulthood. They have special skills and experience in diagnosing and treating kidney problems in children, such as bladder problems, kidney stones, urinary tract disease, and so on. They also aid in the management of conditions associated with kidney diseases, such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

What Are Their Roles & Responsibilities?

A pediatric nephrologist frequently takes on multiple roles and is known by many different names, including children’s kidney doctor, children’s renal specialist, pediatric renal specialist, pediatric kidney specialist, or children’s kidney specialist, etc. A pediatric nephrologist is typically responsible for the following tasks:

  • Examine a patient’s medical history as well as kidney function.
  • Diagnose and treat acute and chronic kidney disease and disorders in children, such as childhood nephrotic syndrome, kidney failure, hemolytic uremic syndrome, hereditary kidney disease, kidney stones, and diabetes.
  • Examine the outcomes of kidney disease screening tests such as urine tests, blood work, and biopsies.
  • Ordering and evaluating laboratory and imaging tests, as well as prescribing medications
  • Determine whether a child suffering from kidney disease requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  • Order and carry out kidney dialysis procedures
  • Offer pre-and post-operative care following kidney transplants and other kidney surgeries.
  • Create lifestyle plans to assist patients in maintaining kidney function, including medication and dietary changes.
  • Collaborate with other healthcare providers, such as pediatric surgeons, pediatric urologists, occupational therapists, nutritionists, physical therapists, and social workers, to assist patients and their families in managing their kidney conditions.

Who Should Consult with Them?

Children with kidney-related disorders should see a pediatric nephrologist on a periodic basis to ensure their kidney functions normally and manage their health. Any child who is newly diagnosed with kidney diseases, such as kidney stones, kidney failure, diabetes, high blood pressure, or childhood nephrotic syndrome, should seek care from an experienced pediatric nephrologist to reduce the risk of complications and to help achieve better kidney health and overall health.

What Kinds of Services Do They Offer?

Pediatric nephrologists diagnose, treat, and manage a wide range of kidney and urinary tract disorders, including kidney failure, inherited kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, high blood pressure, and blood and protein abnormalities in urine. They understand how to assess and treat growth and development issues associated with chronic kidney disease. They are also experienced in assisting patients in making the transition from pediatric nephrologists to adult nephrologists and urologists.

Pediatric nephrologists typically provide the following services:

  • Dialysis
  • Transplantation of a kidney
  • Biopsies of the kidney
  • The interpretation of kidney x-ray studies
  • The interpretation of kidney disease laboratory studies
  • Monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure

Pediatric nephrologists lead a team of specialists, including dieticians, nurses, and social workers, who are all committed to caring for children with kidney disease. They collaborate with other doctors, such as pediatric surgeons, urologists, and radiologists.

pediatric nephrologist

When is a Visit Indispensable?

When a pediatrician discovers or suspects that a child has kidney problems, they will most likely refer the child to a pediatric nephrologist. If the child exhibits any of the following symptoms, he or she should be tested and diagnosed by a pediatric nephrologist:

  • Dark urine
  • Urination occurs frequently.
  • Backache in the middle (right below the ribcage)
  • Ankles or face swollen
  • Eyes get puffy

What are the conditions and diseases that they treat?

A pediatric nephrologist treats the following conditions and diseases in children:

  • Kidney Birth Defects include kidney absence or abnormal kidneys.
  • Bladder Problems such as Urinary system obstructions and reflux.
  • Kidney Damage was done by systemic diseases such as lupus and diabetes
  • Glomerular Diseases, such as childhood nephrotic syndrome. Glomerular diseases are conditions that affect the kidney’s filtering units.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome is an infection of the digestive system that causes kidney problems due to toxic byproducts.
  • Hereditary Kidney Diseases, such as Alport syndrome and Polycystic kidney disease
  • Kidney Cancer that is frequently treated by discarding in whole or portion of the affected kidney.
  • Kidney Failure occurs when the kidneys seem unable to remove impurities from the body.
  • Kidney Stones, which are frequently caused by chronic dehydration

What Types of Tests Do They Run or Order?

A pediatric nephrologist can order or perform a range of diagnostic and screening tests, including the following:

  • Blood and Urine Tests are used to determine how well the kidneys filter waste and fluids or if an infection is present.
  • Biopsies are performed to determine the cause of any abnormalities discovered in urine and blood testing, as well as the extent of kidney damage.
  • Imaging Tests, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, are used to look for clots and congenital malformations in the kidneys.

What Treatments and Procedures Do They Administer or Order?

Pediatric nephrologists stipulate or perform a variety of treatments and procedures to treat kidney diseases in children. They have received training in both clinical and minor surgical procedures, such as the placement of renal artery stents. Despite the fact that pediatric nephrologists would not perform major surgery, such as kidney transplants, they are well-versed in all aspects of the patient’s care before and after surgery. The nephrologist may refer the patient to either a general surgeon, renal transplant surgeon or even other surgical specialists, such as a urologist, depending on the condition.

The following are examples of predominant procedures and treatments:

  • Dialysis Access Procedures involve inserting a catheter into a blood vessel to gain better access to the circulation in prepping for daily is treatments.
  • Dialysis is used to artificially filter toxins and fluids from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so.
  • Kidney Stone Treatment involves the use of surgery, medication, or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to break up kidney stones (ESWL)
  • Post-Kidney Transplant Rehabilitation and Care to ensure that transplanted kidneys function properly and to treat adverse effects and conditions caused by the transplant procedure
  • Renal Angioplasty & Stent Placement to broaden a renal artery as well as improve blood circulation to the kidneys.

Pediatric Nephrologists — The Best Treatment for Children

Children are not miniature versions of adults; their bodies are developing and they have unique medical requirements. They typically express their concerns in a different manner than adults. They are not always able to respond to medical questions and are not always patient and cooperative. Pediatric nephrologists understand how to analyze and treat the patient’s special needs in ways that promote relaxation and cooperation. Furthermore, pediatric nephrologists use specially designed medical equipment for children. The majority of pediatric nephrologists’ offices are designed with children in mind.


If the pediatrician recommends that the child be referred to a pediatric nephrologist, the child will receive the best medical care possible.

You can consult with the top pediatrician or pediatric nephrologists at Dr. Mehta’s Hospitals in Chennai

Ondansetron, Emeset: Uses, Components, Side Effects

Ondansetron dosage


Emeset tablets have been used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which are often used to kill cancer cells. It is also used to relieve the symptoms post-operative vomiting and nausea after surgery. Emeset helps to regulate and handle the onset of nausea and vomiting after cancer treatment and surgery, but it is ineffective at preventing vomiting and nausea caused by other causes, such as motion sickness, which is caused by a different mechanism.

Ondansetron drugDrug Activity


Emeset contains ondansetron, a highly selective and potent 5HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to control nausea and vomiting related to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as to inhibit postoperative nausea and vomiting. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are thought to cause the release of serotonin (5HT) from small intestine cells, which stimulates 5HT3 receptors found on vagal nerves in the intestines. Serotonin stimulation of these nerve endings sends nerve messages to the vomiting center in the brain (a complex area of neuronal networks) that causes the vomiting reflex. Ondansetron is thought to work by preventing nerve messages from the intestines from reaching the vomiting center in the brain. There are several 5HT3 receptors with in chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the postsynaptic membrane in the brain, which initiates the vomiting reflex by transmitting nerve signals to the vomiting center. Ondansetron in Emeset is thought to block the 5HT3 receptors in the CTZ, preventing stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain. Emeset ondansetron blocks the 5HT3 receptors located in the intestine’s peripheral nervous system and the brain’s central nervous system. Ondansetron in Emeset has a dual effect in that it inhibits vomiting induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as post-surgery vomiting, and it also helps relieve nausea.



Emeset tablets contain ondansetron hydrochloride, an antiemetic often used to treat illnesses caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as to prevent postoperative vomiting and nausea.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are cytotoxic treatment methods that trigger the release of serotonin (5HT) from small intestinal cells, which stimulates the 5HT3 receptors on the vagal nerves in the intestines. Serotonin stimulation of these nerve endings sends nerve signals to the vomiting center in the brain (a sophisticated area of brain circuits) that causes the vomiting reflex. Then there are 5HT3 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the postsynaptic membrane in the brain, where the vomiting reflex is initiated by serotonin stimulation of 5HT3 receptors, which sends nerve messages to the vomiting centre. Emeset contains ondansetron, a potent and highly selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist, and its antiemetic action is thought to be due to the inhibition of 5HT3 receptors inside the peripheral nerves of the digestive system and also in the nerve cells of the CTZ in the brain. Ondansetron’s dual-action in Emeset inhibits nausea and vomiting caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Ondansetron side effectsSide Effects


A significant proportion of side effects are not serious but will go away whenever your body adapts to the medication. Consult a doctor if they persist or if you are concerned. Emeset commonly causes the following side effects:

  • Incontinence
  • Diarrhea
  • Exhaustion
  • Migraine
  • Warmth or Flushing Sensation
  • Hypertension (Low Blood Pressure)
  • Hiccups
  • Heart Arrhythmias (Irregular Heart Beat)
  • Chest Ache

OndansetronWho Should Avoid?


Individuals should avoid taking Emeset tablets if they are:

  • Allergic to ondansetron or other specific 5HT3 receptor antagonists, or if they are allergic to any of the ingredients in Emeset.
  • A patient suffering from liver disease
  • A patient suffering from subacute bowel obstructions (constipation).

Ondansetron medicationsEmeset-Interacting Medications


Numerous medicines interact with Emeset and should be avoided or taken only with the doctor’s approval:

  • Anticonvulsants like phenytoin and carbamazepine, as well as antibiotics like rifampicin, have been shown to have an effect on Emeset.
  • Emeset affects drugs such as Tramadol and other analgesics.

Ondansetron consumeHow Should It Be Consumed?


Emeset can be taken with a cup of water either with or without food well before the start of treatment to prevent nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The dose is predominantly determined according to how emetogenic (nausea/vomiting-inducing) the procedure is and is usually taken 30 minutes to 2 hours before treatment, then twelve hours later, then twice daily for 5 days after treatment. Emeset will be given to patients an hour prior to actually injecting anesthesia to prevent postsurgical nausea and vomiting.

Emeset tablets are only used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery.

Ondansetron safetyAdvice on Safety


  • Consuming alcohol while taking Emeset has no negative side effects.
  • Emeset is generally thought to be safe to use while pregnant. Animal studies have revealed that there are few or no negative effects on the developing baby; nevertheless, human studies are scarce.
  • Emeset is most likely safe to use while breastfeeding. According to the limited human data, the drug poses no substantial risk to the baby.
  • The ability to drive after consuming Emeset is usually unaffected.
  • Emeset is not harmful to patients with renal impairment. Emeset dose adjustment is generally not recommended. However, if you have underlying kidney disease, you should notify your doctor.
  • There is relatively little information about the use of Emeset in patients with liver disease, and further research is needed; however, it is best to consult a doctor before taking it.

Dolo 650: Usage, Dosage, Side Effects, Precautions, Composition, and Frequently Asked Questions

Dolo 650

Dolo 650 is primarily used to treat various types of pain (from mild to severe) as well as fever. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was one of the most commonly prescribed paracetamol-based medications. It should be taken on a regular basis, as directed by your doctor, and after food to avoid stomach upset. Dolo 650 reduces pain and fever by inhibiting the production of chemical messengers that cause fever and pain. This is accomplished by suppressing the production of specific molecules in the body and promoting heat loss. This pill inhibits pain impulses delivered to the brain, and the person’s pain is reduced as a result of taking it. Headaches, migraines, toothaches, nerve pain, sore throats, period (menstrual) problems, muscle aches, arthritis, and cold symptoms are all treated with it.

The main ingredient in Dolo 650 is paracetamol, which is also used to relieve pain in the body. Paracetamol is commonly used to treat cancer and postoperative pain, either alone or in combination with other drugs. Adults should take 1 to 2 tablets every four hours, if necessary, but no more than 4000 mg per day. The most common side effects at high doses are liver damage and severe epidermal necrolysis. If you have liver or kidney disease, heart problems, or gastric ulcers, you should avoid taking this pill entirely.


Dolo 650 usesUses of Dolo 650 Tablet

Dolo 650 Tablet is a medication used to treat fever & pain. It is being used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

Fever: A fever is a term that is used to describe a person who has a fever (applicable to all ages with dose)

Pain relief: This medication is used to treat mild to moderate pain.

Back Pain: Sometimes used to treat lower back pain.

Joint Pain: Often used to treat hip, palm, and knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.

Migraine: Used to treat migraine headaches.

Dental pain: This medication is used to treat dental pain.

Post-operative Pain: Used to manage post-operative pain (in combination with other NSAIDs)

Postpartum: Used to alleviate post-pregnancy pain.

 Dolo 650 dosageDosage Recommendations


  • Always take your medication with a small amount of water, either before or after you eat.
  • Dolo 650 tablets should be swallowed whole, rather than crushed or chewed.
  • The medicine should always be taken in the prescribed dosage as prescribed by a primary care physician.
  • In the event of a missed or forgotten dose, do not overdose to compensate.
  • Individuals should not discontinue Dolo 650 on their own accord; instead, they should adhere to the prescription prescribed by their primary care physician.


Dolo650 side effectsSide Effect

In general, it has been observed that Dolo 650 tablet has no side effects. However, in some cases, these are some of the most common side effects that a person may experience:

  • Indigestion and stomach pain
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Malaise (sense of feeling unwell, with widespread pain, exhaustion, or lack of interest)
  • Drowsiness and dizziness
  • Drop-in blood pressure
  • Diarrhea

This medication may, on rare occasions, cause serious side effects, which may include:

  • A full or partial collapse of the lung (Atelectasis), as well as a reduction in lung function
  • Damage to the liver as a result of abnormal liver function
  • Rashes on the skin
  • Accelerated heartbeat
  • It may be hard to talk or breathe for a short period of time
  • Face, lip, tongue, and/or throat swelling
  • Suffocation and difficulty breathing (Angioedema of Larynx)
  • Wheezing and breathlessness
  • Nervous system dysfunction
  • Platelet count becomes low.
  • White blood cell (WBC) count reduce.

Consult your primary care doctor if you undergo any of these symptoms; long-term symptoms may become severe.


Dolo 650 precautionsPrecautions When Using Dolo 650

The medicine should not be given to patients who have liver or kidney disease without first consulting a doctor.

Empty stomach: To avoid gastric irritation, never take the drug on an empty stomach.

Caution: This medication should be used cautiously by patients who have a history of heart disease or coagulation disorders.

Dose adjustment: It is best to avoid taking a high dose without first consulting with a doctor.

Do not take Dolo 650 if any of the following conditions exist:

  • Allergy: If the individual has a known allergy to Dolo 650 or any of its constituents.
  • NSAID allergy: If the individual has a known history of an allergic response to aspirin or other Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) such as aspirin, diclofenac, and so on, or if they have any other current condition.
  • Asthma Attack: If there is a known history of taking Dolo 650 Tablets, Aspirin, or any other NSAID and experiencing nose irritation, asthma attacks, swelling on the face, irritating red protuberances on the skin, or stomach bleeding in the past.
  • Gastric Discomfort: If there is a known history of a gastric ulcer or stomach bleeding.
  • Liver Disease: If the patient has a history of severe liver or kidney disease or if it is present.
  • Cardiovascular disease: If the patient has a family history of heart disease, heart failure, or stroke.
  • Breathing Difficulties: If the patient has asthma or other breathing problems,
  • Disorder of the Blood: If there is a history of extreme blood loss or if the patient has porphyria



  • Dolo 650 is made up of Paracetamol, which is the active ingredient.
  • Paracetamol is a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug that works by inhibiting the Cyclo-oxygenase enzymes which produce prostaglandins.
  • Prostaglandins are responsible for symptoms such as pain, swelling, and fever, and inhibiting the Cyclo-oxygenase enzyme ultimately inhibits Prostaglandin production, resulting in a reduction in symptoms such as pain, swelling, and fever.

Dolo FaqFrequently Asked Questions


Q 1. What if I consume an expired Dolo 650?

Although an expired dose of Dolo 650 is unlikely to cause any adverse effects, a doctor should be consulted if you experience any illness or symptoms after having consumed an expired medicine. An expired medicine is ineffective in treating the condition, and it should not be consumed.

Q 2. What tends to happen if I miss my Dolo 650 dose?

The doctor’s prescribed dose should never be missed, and if it is, it must be consumed as soon as you remember it. However, refrain from taking a double dose if the second dose is already due, as this may result in a drug overdose.

Q 3. What is the Dolo 650’s onset time?

Dolo 650’s effects/results could be seen in less than 1 hour of taking the drug. A minimum of 4-6 hours should elapse between two Dolo 650 doses.

Q 4. How long does the Dolo 650 effect last?

The time it takes for the drug to take effect varies from person to person.

Q 5. Can I drink Dolo 650 while drinking alcohol?

No. Dolo 650 could interact with alcohol, causing gastric hemorrhage and liver damage. Always consult your physician before drinking alcohol whilst also taking this medication.

Q 6. Is there a type of food, in particular, that should be avoided?

There are no specific foods that should be avoided.

Q 7. Can I consume Dolo 650 while pregnant?

Yes, because it is presumed safe during pregnancy, but the physician must always be informed in the event of a pregnancy or plans to conceive for case-specific recommendations. The use of paracetamol during pregnancy increases the child’s risk of developing asthma.

Q 8. Can I drink Dolo 650 while breastfeeding?

It has been shown to be precipitated in human breast milk, so it is advisable to avoid or to use it with caution in breastfeeding mothers.

Q 9. Can I keep driving after having taken Dolo 650?

Dolo 650 has no effect on driving ability. However, if drowsiness or dizziness occurs, individuals must avoid driving or operating machinery.

Dietary & Nutritional Guidelines for Healthy Children


diet in children

Today’s children and families have hectic schedules. This makes it difficult to eat home-cooked meals every day. Many children’s diets consist primarily of ready-to-eat and restaurant food. These food products, however, can be detrimental to health and have a negative impact on the child’s health. Some of the issues caused by unhealthy eating can last into adulthood. They can even progress to become chronic diseases.

Children benefit greatly from healthy eating. It is capable of:

  • Improving their energy levels.
  • Improving their mental faculties.
  • Balancing their mood.
  • Helping them reach and maintain a healthy weight.
  • Helping in the prevention of mental health problems such as Depression, Stress, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Furthermore, eating a healthy diet and focusing on nutrition are two of the simplest and most important ways to prevent disease. Many chronic diseases can be avoided by eating healthy. Overweight, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance are examples of a few chronic diseases caused due to unhealthy diet. Approximately more than half of all Indians suffer from one or more of these diseases.

Healthy eating habits are more likely to stick with you if you learn them as a child. That is why it is critical that you cultivate good habits in your children now. This will enable them to stick to their eating habits and assist them in avoiding chronic diseases such as those listed above, whether as a child or as an adult.

The Way to Better Health

There are numerous ways to educate and support your children’s healthy eating habits. These are some examples:

Begin With Breakfast.

Eating a protein-rich breakfast is a fantastic way for children to start the day. Protein will help them feel fuller for longer periods of time. It can even assist teenagers in losing weight.

Mornings can be strenuous. Try one of these for a nutritious on-the-go breakfast:

  • A slice of whole-wheat bread and an egg omelet
  • Boiled eggs, toast, and an apple.
  • Poha
  • Oatmeal

Prioritize Mealtimes

Sitting down to eat as a family is an essential part of improving healthy eating habits. But it goes beyond simply eating next to each other. Meals are also an opportunity to:

Make Your Children Feel Safe. Routine is essential for children. They feel safer knowing they have lunches and dinners with their family on a regular basis.

Speak with Your Children. Demonstrate an interest in what is going on in their lives. Tell them about yours. Improve your family’s connections.

Keep Track of Their Eating Habits. Older children and teenagers eat more frequently at school or at friends’ homes. Take advantage of this time to observe what and how they eat. Check to see if there is anything you can do to promote better habits.

Lead by Example for Your Child to Follow. If you make preparations and eat healthy meals, your child will do the same. Stay away from obsessive calorie-counting. Don’t say anything negative about yourself. Your child may take on the same attitude. This could lead to him or her developing body image issues or negative food associations.

Get The Kids Involved.

Allow your children to assist you in grocery shopping and food selection. Teach them how to read food labels so they can understand the necessary nutrients in the foods they eat. They could also help cook healthy meals and take accountability for what they eat.

Planting a garden is another interesting and fun way of engaging your child. Growing some vegetables, fruits, and herbs with children can teach them valuable lessons on planting, nurturing, and harvesting one’s own food. It can be rewarding for both children and adults to engage in this activity.

Make Healthier Food Choices

The principles of nutrition for children are the same as those of nutrition for adults. Everyone requires the same nutrients, including vitamins, carbohydrates, protein, minerals, and fat. Children, on the other hand, require different levels of key nutrients at varying ages. Consider the following nutrient-dense foods:


Healthy choices of food rich in protein include seafood, chicken, lean beef, eggs, beans, peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds.


Instead of fruit juice, encourage your children to consume a variety of fresh, canned, frozen, or dried fruits. It is best to maintain a strict limit on how much juice your child consumes and to ensure it is 100% juice without added sugar. When buying canned fruit, look for labels saying “light” or “packed in its own juice,” which indicate that it contains very little sugar. When purchasing dried fruit, remember that one cup is equal to one cup of fresh fruit. In excess, dried fruit can add a significant number of calories to your diet.


You can serve a wide range of vegetables, whether fresh, frozen, canned, or dried. Each week, aim to provide a variety of vegetables, such as green leafy vegetables, red or orange peppers, carrots, beetroots, peas, potatoes, and so on. Look for low-sodium options when purchasing canned or frozen vegetables.


Food made with whole grains such as whole wheat, corn, quinoa, oats, or brown or wild rice are excellent diet choices. Foods containing refined grains, such as pasta, white bread, and rice, should be avoided.


Encourage your child to consume fat-free or low-fat dairy products like milk, yogurt, cheese, or fortified soy beverages.

Nutritious food

Sugar Should Be Kept At Minimal

Sugar can be found in almost every type of food available on the market today. Vegetables and fruit, grain products, and dairy products are examples of these. These foods supply all of our sugar requirements.

Sugar is also added to several foods. All of this extra sugar, at best, only tends to add empty calories to our diets. In the worst-case scenario, it may contribute to ADHD, psychiatric symptoms, overweight, and impaired glucose tolerance.

Sugar is frequently added to foods that we would never suspect contained sugar. Breads, canned soups or vegetables, condiments like tomato sauce, frozen foods, and fast food are examples of these. We must avoid or limit our consumption of these foods in order to maintain good health.

Here are some suggestions for cutting sugar out of your and your children’s diets.

Don’t Completely Ban Sweets. Declaring that your child will never be able to eat doughnuts or cake again can lead to cravings. When they do indulge in a sugary treat, they often seem to overdo it. Simply make these foods a special treat rather than a regular part of their diet.

Recipes Should Be Modified. Many recipes can be made with less sugar and still taste just as good. Try halving the amount of added sugar and see how it turns out.

Sugary Drinks Should Be Avoided. It is suggested that children consume lesser than 12 grams of sugar per day (3 tsp). Despite this, one can of soft drink contains 40 grams (10 tsp) of added sugar. Eliminating soft drink and beverages is a simple way to cut back on sugar.

Consume More Fruits. Fruit contains a lot of natural sugar. Consume more to satiate your sugar cravings. Make desserts that feature fruit as the main ingredient. If you’re craving something sweet, try a fruit smoothie that has more natural sweetness instead of a sugary milkshake.

When It Comes to Fat, Be Informed

We need healthy fats in our diet. They assist us in obtaining and maintaining fullness. They are also beneficial to our brains, as they improve memory and lift our spirits. The key is to ensure that your children are getting enough healthy fats.

Unsaturated fats are the type of fat that is considered to be healthy. These include the following:

Monounsaturated Fats such as in olive oil, avocados, nuts (pistachios or almonds), and seeds (pumpkin or sesame).

Polyunsaturated Fats such as those found in flaxseed, walnuts, and fish such as mackerel and sardines.

Healthy diet

Trans fats are bad fats. This could be found in:

  • Fried foods
  • Processed foods that contain “partially hydrogenated” vegetable oils.
  • Packaged food products such as potato chips, biscuits, or snacks

There are an infinite number of strategies for getting your children to eat nutritious foods. Making fruits and vegetables appealing and eliminating unhealthy sugary or salty snacks is only the first step toward a healthy diet. A salty snack, such as potato chips, may appeal to your child. If there aren’t any, he or she is more likely to enjoy carrots with hummus. Food preferences form early in life. Introduce your child to a variety of foods at a young age and continue to do so as they grow into adulthood. Rather than focusing on specific foods, consider your eating habits. Eat as many whole or minimally processed foods as possible. As much as possible, choose fresh foods over canned and processed foods, and avoid them entirely if possible. Do not force your child to eat until they have finished their plate. They must train themselves to pay attention to their bodies. They are less likely to overeat if they are satisfied and can stop eating. Children eat in the same way that adults do. Your child is more likely to follow these guidelines if you do.

A Comprehensive Description of Endometriosis


Endometriosis is derived from the term “endometrium,” which refers to the uterine tissue. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue beyond the uterus in patients. Endometriosis most commonly affects the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and tissue lining the pelvis. Endometrial tissue rarely spreads outside of the pelvic region, but it is not impossible. Endometrial implants are areas of endometrial tissue that grow outside of the uterus.

Endometrial tissue accumulates and is shed during a woman’s routine menstrual periods if she hasn’t become pregnant. Women with endometriosis possess tissue that looks and behaves the same as endometrial tissue beyond the uterus, usually on some other reproductive organs within the pelvis or perhaps in the abdominal cavity. Each month, this misplaced tissue in the pelvis reacts to the hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual period by building up and breaking down in the same way that the endometrium does. This means that the tissue will expand, thicken, and disintegrate. Over time, the degraded tissue has nowhere else to go and thus becomes trapped in the pelvis.

This trapped tissue in the pelvis can lead to:

  • Itchiness
  • Formation of scars
  • Adhesions are formed when tissue binds the pelvic organs together.
  • Menstrual cramps are excruciating pains that occur during the menstrual cycle.
  • Fertility issues

When the ovary is implicated, blood could become embedded in normal ovarian tissue, resulting in a “blood blister” enveloped by a fibrous cyst known as an endometrioma.

Causes of Endometriosis

Even though the actual cause of endometriosis is unknown, the following theories have been proposed:

Retrograde Menstruation

Menstrual blood comprising endometrial cells goes straight back through fallopian tubes and then into the pelvic cavity, rather than out of the body, during retrograde menstruation. These endometrial cells adhere here to pelvic walls and pelvic organ surfaces, where they grow, condense and bleed throughout the menstrual cycle.

Peritoneal Cell Transformation

Experts through “induction theory” propose that hormones or immune factors stimulate the cells that make up the inner side of the abdomen, peritoneal cells to transform into endometrial-like cells.

Embryonic Cell Transformation

During puberty, hormones such as estrogen can transform embryonic cells (cells in their initial phases of development) into endometrial-like cell implants.

Surgical Scar Implantation

Endometrial cells may get bonded to a surgical incision after a procedure such as a C-section or a hysterectomy.

Endometrial Cell Transport

Endometrial cells may be transported to other parts of the body via the blood vessels of the tissue fluid (lymphatic) system.

Immune System Dysfunction

An issue with the immune system may prevent the body from recognizing and destroying endometrial-like tissue that develops outside the uterus.

endometriosis symptoms

Where Can Endometriosis Occur?

Endometriosis is most commonly found in the following areas:

  • The ovaries
  • The fallopian tubes
  • Ligaments that hold the uterus together (uterosacral ligaments)
  • The posterior cul-de-sac, also known as the space between both the uterus and the rectum
  • The anterior cul-de-sac, also known as the space between both the uterus and the bladder
  • The uterus’s external surface
  • The inside lining of the pelvic area

Endometrial tissue is occasionally discovered in other places, such as:

  • The digestive tract
  • Rectum
  • The urinary bladder
  • The vaginal canal
  • Cervical artery
  • The vulva’s
  • Scars from abdominal surgery

Risk Factors

Women are more likely to develop endometriosis if they have any of the following risk factors:

  • Never having children
  • Beginning their period at a young age
  • Experiencing menopause at a later age
  • Menstrual cycles which are less than 27 days, for example, are considered short.
  • Menstrual cycles that can last for more than seven days
  • Higher estrogen levels in their body or a substantial amount of estrogen produced by the body
  • Body mass index is low.
  • Family history of Endometriosis
  • Any medical problem that prevents blood from leaving the body during menstruation.
  • Reproductive system disorders
  • Endometriosis usually appears several years after menstruation begins (menarche). Endometriosis symptoms may improve temporarily during pregnancy and disappear completely during menopause if you are not taking estrogen.


The following are typical symptoms of endometriosis, but each woman will experience symptoms differently, and some will not experience any symptoms at all. Endometriosis symptoms can include:

  • Pain, particularly severe menstrual cramps mostly in the abdomen or lower back portion of the body
  • Excessive pain caused Intercourse
  • Menstrual flow that is abnormally heavy or excessive
  • Infertility
  • Painful urination during menstruation
  • Painful bowel motion during menstruation
  • Other gastrointestinal issues, such as diarrhea, constipation, and/or nausea

It is crucial to highlight that the amount of pain a woman feels is not always related to the severity of the condition. Some women who suffer from a severe form of endometriosis may have no pain, whereas some with a fairly mild illness may have intense pain or other symptoms.

endometriosis treatment

Endometriosis Stages

The stage of the disease is determined by a variety of factors. Endometrial implants’ position, number, scale, and depth are examples of such factors. Endometriosis is categorized into 4 stages or types. It is briefly described as follows:

Stage 1: Minimal

When there are minor lesions or wounds on the ovaries, as well as shallow endometrial implants, this is referred to as minimal endometriosis. Swelling in and around the pelvic area is also possible.

Stage 2: Mild

Mild endometriosis is made up of small lesions as well as shallow implants mostly on ovaries and pelvic lining.

Stage 3: Moderate

Moderate endometriosis is characterized by numerous deep implants on the ovaries and pelvic lining. There could also be additional lesions.

Stage 4: Severe

Endometriosis at its most severe stage involves numerous deep implants on the pelvic lining and ovaries. There could be the development of lesions on the fallopian tubes and bowels as well. Growth of cysts on one or both of the ovaries is also possible.


For many women, merely being diagnosed with endometriosis is enough to provide relief. To begin the diagnosis process, a gynecologist or other health care provider evaluates a patient’s medical history and performs a medical assessment, including a pelvic exam. Endometriosis can only be diagnosed with certainty if the doctor performs a laparoscopy and obtains biopsies or any suspicious tissue, which is then examined under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis. Laparoscopy is a minor surgical procedure that involves inserting a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a camera at the end, through a small incision into the abdomen. Laparoscopy is also used to determine the location, scope, and size of endometrial growths.

Other tests that may be used to diagnose endometriosis include:


A diagnostic imaging method that creates a detailed image of the organs using high-frequency sound waves.

CT scan

A noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that employs a mixture of X-rays and computer technology to generate horizontal, or axial, images — commonly referred to as slices — of the body in order to detect any abnormalities that may not be visible on a standard X-ray.

MRI examination

A non-invasive procedure that generates a two-dimensional image of the internal organ or structure.

Treatment Alternatives

The health care provider will determine the best treatment for endometriosis based on the following factors:

  • The overall health as well as the medical history
  • Current signs and symptoms
  • The disease’s scope
  • One’s ability to tolerate specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • Expectations for the disease’s progression
  • One’s point of view or preference
  • One’s desire to become pregnant

If the symptoms are mild, most health care providers believe that no more treatment, apart from pain medication, is required.

In general, endometriosis treatment may include “Waiting with bated breath” to see how the disease progress. Here are a few of the treatments usually provided:

Pain Medication

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or any other over-the-counter pain relievers are used to treat pain.

Hormone Therapy

This treatment procedure involves prescribing:

  • Oral contraceptives containing estrogen and progestin (a compound formed by progesterone) hormones are used to help stop ovulation and lessen menstrual flow.
  • Progestins
  • Agonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which causes ovarian hormone production to cease, resulting in “medical menopause.”
  • Danazol is a synthetic testosterone derivative (a male hormone)

Endometriosis can also be treated surgically using the following techniques:

Laparoscopy (also used to accurately identify Endometriosis)

A minor surgical technique where a laparoscope, a slender tube with a lens as well as a light, is introduced into an incision in the abdominal wall; the doctor can often remove endometrial growths using the laparoscope to view the insides of the pelvic area.


A more invasive surgery that removes as much of displaced endometrium as feasible while preserving healthy tissue.


A surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus and possibly the ovaries.


It is critical to thoroughly talk about any or all of these treatments with your healthcare professional, as some may interfere with the effectiveness of others. To know more book an appointment at Dr. Mehta’s Hospitals.

Reason Why Kids Are Affected By Cancer During Recent Times Prevention And Care

pediatric cancer symptoms

95% of cancers are infrequent in children. The plurality of cancers originate in adults, and it is most common among the elderly. Approximately one out of every three adults in the United States will develop most cancers throughout the course of their lives, while one out of every 285 children will develop cancer before the age of 20. At the same time, there is a lot of research going on to identify novel treatments for non-age cancers. This research has drastically increased the thermal survivorship for children with cancer, which is now above eighty percent.

What is pediatric cancer?

Cancers can develop everywhere in the body in children, including the blood and lymph node structures, the brain and spinal wire (central nervous system, or CNS), kidneys, and other organs and tissues. The majority of the time, there is no known cause for childhood malignancies. Even if they start in the same place of the body, youth malignancies could perhaps act notably different than serious diseases.

When healthy cells exchange and develop out of control, cancer develops. Most malignancies produce a mass known as a tumor, which is formed by these cells. A tumor might be invasive or non-cancerous. A cancerous tumor is carcinogenic, which means it has the potential to grow and spread to other parts of the body. As an alternative, those cells crowd out different forms of cells in the bone marrow. This prevents the production of:

Erythrocyte. Cells that carry oxygen to tissues.

White blood cells. Cells that combat infection.

Platelets. The part of the blood needed for clotting.


Cancer in children might be difficult to detect. Children with most cancers may experience a variety of the signs and symptoms listed below, many of which are similar to typical childhood diseases. And, on occasion, children with cancer do not show any of these alterations. It’s also important to realise that the cause of a symptom or signal could be a different medical condition that isn’t related to most malignancies.

  • C – Continued, unexplained weight reduction
  • H – Headaches, regularly with early morning vomiting
  • I – Increased swelling or chronic ache inside the bones, joints, lower back, or legs
  • L – Lump or mass, specially inside the stomach, neck, chest, pelvis, or armpits
  • D – Development of immoderate bruising, bleeding, or rash
  • C – Constant, Infections that are frequent or persistent
  • A – A whitish shade behind the pupil
  • N – Nausea that endures, or vomiting that isn’t accompanied by sickness
  • C – Constant tiredness or considerable paleness
  • E – Eye or vision changes that arise unexpectedly and persist
  • R – Recurring or chronic fevers of unknown beginning

pediatric cancer treatments

Ways to keep your children safe from cancer

The plurality of childhood cancers are linked to factors such as parental occupation, maternal reproductive history, parental cigarette or alcohol use, maternal weight loss, eating habits, children’s way of life and factors of heredity, among others. It’s crucial to remember that if a healthy lifestyle is followed, youth cancers can be averted to a large extent.

Encourage children to eat a variety of vibrant fruits and vegetables, which are high in antioxidants and nutrients and minerals. These aid in protecting the body from harmful toxins that enter the body.

Physical action – It is critical that children are taught the necessity of having adequate vigorous exercise from a younger years. Because sedentary lifestyle is one of the fundamental causes of cancer, exercising on a regular basis allows for a reduction in the overall risk of cancer. Engage children in cycle actions, such as taking the stairs, walking your pooch, playing outside games, swimming, and so on.

Weight disorders during childhood are becoming a major health concern and a leading cause of cancer. Encourage them to sit down for healthy family meals as often as possible, and limit their television viewing time to 2 hours or fewer each day. As previously stated, engage your children in physical activities and provide them with a nutritious diet. Limit their consumption of junk food, fast food, and sweets. Every day, you must consume a nutritious breakfast. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months is also essential for mothers.

Smoking and alcohol consumption — children should be taught about the harmful effects of smoking and alcohol consumption from an early age in order to avoid them as adults. Even if they do take it, they may be conscious enough to take it in little doses.

Boost your toddler’s immunity by giving him or her nutrients that are known to improve immunity. Yogurt, garlic and greens are all immune-boosting foods. Exercising also helps to improve immunity.

cancer in kids

Cervical cancer vaccines – HPV vaccines are only for girls and boys above the age of 11 or 12. HPV vaccinations – Cervarix and Gardasil – are administered as a series of three dosage spread out over six months. Cervarix and Gardasil are both approved for HPV prevention in females as well as males and protects against cancers of the anus, vagina, and vulva, as well as genital warts, in addition to cervical malignancies. Show your children the importance of getting checked for all cancers by having your own regular screenings.

Hepatitis B vaccination is a combination of vaccines that protect against Hepatitis B infection, which is one of the leading causes of liver cancer in adults. The onus is on parents to start implementing preventive measures as early as puberty in order to make their children’s lives easier. It is their responsibility to assist their children adopt a healthy lifestyle from the start in order to reduce the risks of most malignancies.

Pregnancy – A complete cycle

Periods of maturation month by month of pregnancy

Pregnancy women

First trimester

The firsthand trimester will cipher from conception to 12 weeks. That is usually the first 3 months of being pregnant. The fertilized egg will change from a tiny hodgepodge of cells to a fetus with baby-like features at some nanosecond during this trimester.

Month 1 (weeks 1 through 4)

As the fertilized egg matures, a water-tight sac grows disciform around it, which eventually accumulates fluid. This corresponds to the amniotic sac and has the ability to cradle the developing embryo. The arachnoid membrane thickens and ripens through this whole period. The placenta is a disciform, flat organ that transports nutrients from the mother to the fetus while somehow moving the waste from the fetus. Throughout your conception, determine the uterus is a feeding origin for the fetus. A primitive visage will arise in the first few weeks, with big darkish rings for eyes. The lower jaw, mouth, and throat are all growing. Blood cells are forming and the spread is beginning. By the end of the fourth week, the small “heart” tube can beat sixty-five times per second. The fetus is about 1/4 inch long at the end of the first month – about the size of a grain of rice.

Month 2 (weeks 5 through 8)

Face features are still evolving. Each ear commences a little fold of skin on the upper side of the head. Tiny buds are growing, which will eventually become legs and arms. Fingers, toes, and eyeballs are all developing. The neural tube has completed its development. The digestive tract and sensory receptors all broaden to expand. Bone arose like a way of replacing cartilage. At this scale, the apex is massive in comparison to the rest of both screens. A heartbeat can usually distinguish at 6 weeks. After the eighth week, healthcare providers treat it as a whole fetus rather than an embryo. The fetus has grown to be 1 inch long and weighs around 1/30 of an ounce at the end of the 2nd period.

Month 3 (weeks 9 through 12)

The fingers, limbs, toes, and feet have all been fully developed. By opening and shutting its hands and mouth, the fetus is beginning to explore a chunk at this phase. Fingernails and toenails are starting to spread, and external ears are growing. Below the gums, the first teeth are growing. The internal systems are evolving, but ultrasonography still makes gender identification difficult. The fetus is completely formed by the end of the 3rd period. All of the organs and limbs are present and will continue to expand in number, making them more useful. The circulatory and urinary systems are indeed operable, and bile is produced by the liver. The fetus is four inches long and weighs around one ounce at the end of the 3rd period. Your risk of miscarriage lowers dramatically after three months for the reason that certain crucial healing has been done.

Second trimester

This period of pregnancy is widely thought of as the enthralling section. Any morning sickness may be gone, and the pains of early pregnancy may have faded with the help of this period. Throughout this period, the fetus will begin to develop face features. As the fetus flips and twists innards the uterus, you may notice movement. Many people out if their child will be a guy or a woman at birth during this trimester. This is usually done for about 20 weeks during an anatomy exam (an ultrasound that assesses physical development).

Month 4 (weeks 13 through 16)

The fetal heartbeat may add on now be audible through a tool labeled as doppler. The hands and feet are nicely-described. Eyelids, brows, lashes, fingernails, and hair are all styled. Teeth and bones come to be denser. The fetus may even suck his or her thumb, yawn, stretch & make faces. The anxious machine is starting to function. The reproductive organs and genitalia at the moment are fully advanced, & your doctor can see on ultrasound if the fetus can be a special male or woman at the start. With the aid of the cease of the 4th period, the fetus is set 6 inches long and weighs approximately four oz.

 Month 5 (weeks 17 through 20)

At such a phase, you should start to notice the fetus moving around. Muscle tissues are developed and exercised in the fetus. The first movement, that can amble as a proposal is quickening. Hair starts to grow on the head. The shoulders, lower back, and temples are protected by lanugo, a soft, large hair. This hair protects the unborn and is routinely discarded in the first week of your child’s life. Vernix caseosa is a whitish skin surface. This “cheesy” integral is meant to protect fetal skin from extended amniotic fluid contact. This layer is discarded right before the process begins. By the conclusion of the 5th period, the fetus is 10 inches long and weighs half to one pound.

Month 6 (weeks 21 through 24)

If you glance at the innards of the female reproductive organ right now, you’ll notice that the fetus’s skin is multicolored in color, wrinkled, and veins are visible through semitransparent pores and skin. Finger and toe prints can be seen. The eyelids begin to half and the eyes open at this level. The fetus reacts to sounds by altering or augmenting its heartbeat. If the fetus hiccups, you’ll be able to make jerking motions with your words. If your child was born before the 23rd week, he or she could survive the ordeal if given proper care. The fetus is around 12 inches long and weighs about 2 pounds at the end of the 6th period.

Month 7 (weeks 25 through 28)

The fetus continues to mature and expand its bodily fat reserves. Listening to possesses good enough complication at this notch. The fetus switches roles on a regular basis and responds to stimuli including sound, ache, & light. The amniotic fluid begins to deplete. If you were born before the 7th period, your child it will nearly be without a mistrustfulness forfeiture. The fetus is 14 inches long and weighs between 2 and 4 pounds at the end of the 7th period.

Third trimester

This is where your pregnancy comes to an end. You’ll be tempted to start the countdown until your due date and wish that it valor approach early, withal every week of this final stage of development helps the fetus put together for the beginning. In the course of the third trimester, the fetus profits weight speedily, adding body fat with a view to assist after the start.

Remember that, contrary to popular belief, you could be pregnant for up to ten months. A slightly longer pregnancy after conception is 40 days straight, putting you in the 10th period of your pregnancy. You can be right able to extend your deadline by a week or more (41 to 42 weeks). As the due date approaches, your healthcare provider will tell everything to you. If you fail to meet your deadline and do not go into spontaneous labor, your firm may terminate your employment. As a result, drugs may be taken to deliver babies and the birth of the baby. Throughout this trimester, make sure to discuss your delivery plans with your healthcare practitioner.

 Month eight (weeks 29 through 32)

The fetus continues to develop and expand its bodily fat reserves. You may even be able to ignore the add-on banging. The intellect is proliferate at the moment, and the fetus can see and hear. Although the preponderance of inner fittings has been cultivated, the lungs may still be immature. The fetus measures 18 inches in length and weighs up to five pounds.

Month nine (weeks 33 through 36)

During this period, the fetus continues to develop and expand. At this notch, the lungs are almost completely grown. The fetus has synchronized instincts and can blink, close eyes, spin the head, grab firmly, and respond to stimuli, both soft and loud. The fetus is approximately 17 to 19 inches long and weighs between 5 and 6 pounds.

Month 10 (Weeks 37 through 40)

    You can go into labor at a bit notch during the conclusion period. Because the space is limited, there is far little movement. The fetus’s role may have changed at this notch to prepare for delivery. For your uterus, it’s best if it’s head down. As the fetus slips down into your pelvis and prepares for birth, you could feel very uncomfortable. At this notch, your toddler is willing to fulfill the entire world. They are 18 to 20 inches long and weigh around 7 pounds.

Pregnancy trimster

Which supplements are most important during pregnancy?

    All nutrients are necessary & the six-play a key function in your child’s growth and development all through pregnancy:

  • Folic acid
  • Iron
  • Calcium
  • Nutrition D
  • DHA
  • Iodine

Folic acid

  1. Sooner than being pregnant take a nutrition complement with four 400mcg of folic acid daily.
  2. Even if you’re not aiming to get pregnant, take a dietary supplement with 400 mcg of folic acid on a daily basis.
  3. For some purpose of pregnancy, take prenatal nutrition each day that has 600 mcg of folic acid in it.


Throughout pregnancy, you would like 27 milligrams of iron daily. This amount is found in most prenatal supplements. Additionally, meals may provide you with iron. Prestigious products of iron consist of:

  • Lean meat, poultry, and seafood.
  • Cereal, bread, and pasta that has iron added to it.
  • Leafy green greens.
  • Beans, nuts, raisins, and edible fruit.

Antioxidant-rich foods increase the amount of iron your body absorbs. It’s a fantastic idea to intake them under this way like orange juice, tomatoes, strawberries and grapefruit daily.


Calcium is a mineral that allows your infant’s bones, teeth, coronary heart, muscles, and nerves to increase. For some purpose of being pregnant, you want 1,000 milligrams of calcium on a daily basis. You will get the amount by the approach of taking your prenatal nutrition and ingesting meals that have quite a little calcium in them. Prestigious products of calcium encompass:

  • Milk, cheese, and yogurt.
  • Broccoli and kale.
  • Fresh juice that has been fortified with calcium.

Vitamin D

within the course of pregnancy, you would like 600 IU of nutrition D on daily basis. You’ll be able to get this amount from meals or your prenatal diet. Excellent assets of fat-soluble vitamin encompass:

  • Fatty fish, like salmon.
  • Milk and cereal that has diet D delivered to it.


At some purpose of being pregnant, it’s miles inspired that women ingest 8 to 12 ounces of seafood low in mercury every week. Applicable sources of DHA include:

  • Orange juice, milk, and eggs that have DHA additional to them.
  • Herring, salmon, trout, anchovies, halibut, catfish, shrimp, and tilapia are some of the species available.

pregnancy diet


For the period of pregnancy, you would like 220 micrograms of iodine on a daily basis. Not all antepartum nutrients embody iodine, thus make sure that you ingest meals that have iodine in them. Prime  sources of iodine include:


  • Milk, cheese, and yogurt.
  • Enriched or fortified cereal and bread.

Physical Activity

 The consummate gym works expanse unit safe to performs on up and down incubation, in view of you will exercise with caution and don’t exaggerate it.

The safest and most effective hustle expanse unit swimming, brisk walking, indoor stationary athletics, step or elliptical machines, and low-impact aerobic exercise (taught by licensed aerobic trainers). These hustles carry very little risk of injury, profit your entire body, and maybe will rerun up to the creation.

Tennis and racquetball expanse unit usually safe hustle, it changes in hang up and down incubation, valor an effect on fast movements. different hustle like cardiopulmonary exercise may be dilapidated restraint, notably if you were doing them before your gestation. you’ll need to put an end to gym work or hustle that don’t need nice balance or allocation, notably later in gestation.

Here are some key tips for pregnant women:

  • Wear unfitting, comfy apparel.
  • Choose shoes that quadrate quantum steered for the array of exercises you are doing. correct shoes square measure your best protection against injury.
  • Exercise on a flat, level surface to stop injury.
  • Consume enough calories to fulfill the wants of your corporal level (300 add-on calories per day than before you were pregnant) stock – still to your exercise program.
  • Finish feeding a minimum of one hour before exercise.
  • Drink water before, during, and while travail.
  • After doing floor works, rise slowly and bit by bit to stop lightheadedness.
  • Never work out to the mark of exhaustion. If you can’t open up habitually while exercising, you’re probably over-exerting yourself and your hustle will be hampered.


Amoxicillin Uses, Side Effects & Dosage Guide


Amoxicillin dosage

Amoxicillin is a penicillin-based antibiotic prescription medication used to treat the symptoms of bacterial infections such as Tonsillitis, Pneumonia, Bronchitis, and infections of the skin, ear, nose, throat, and urinary tract. It is typically used in combination with other medications and antibiotics such as clarithromycin to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. This combination is sometimes also combined with lansoprazole, a stomach acid reducer, to treat stomach ulcers.

Amoxicillin belongs to a class of drugs known as beta-lactams. This type of antibiotic works by binding to proteins and inhibiting specific bacterial cell processes. This causes the cell walls to degrade and the bacteria to die, a process known as bactericidal killing. The antibiotic begins to work within about one or two hours of being taken by a patient and reaches its highest blood concentration in about the same amount of time. Symptoms may however take longer to improve after taking amoxicillin.  According to experts, people should see improvement in their symptoms in less than 72 hours or about 3 days, but they could see improvement as soon as 24 hours.

It’s critical to understand that Amoxicillin is only used to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria.  Viral infections causing illnesses such as flu, cough, sore throat, fever and so on will not be treated by amoxicillin, and administration of such antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of drug-resistant infections.

If patients do not notice an improvement within three days, they should consult with their doctor about other alternative treatments.

Drug Administration Procedure

The procedure for taking amoxicillin vary based on the condition being medicated. Seeing as amoxicillin is a type of generic, it is commonly available under a variety of brand names. It is usually available as an oral antibiotic, which means that it must be taken orally.

Amoxicillin is also available in capsules, tablets, chewable tablets, and a suspension. This medication can be taken with or without supliments. In some cases, Amoxicillin can be injected directly into the bloodstream, but this is only done in a hospital.

List Of Approved Medical Conditions for Which Amoxicillin Is Used

  • Infections of the genitourinary tract
  • Infections of the skin and skin structures
  • Infections of the lower respiratory tract
  • Infections of the ears
  • Infections of the nose
  • Infections of the throat
  • Bronchitis
  • Bacterial rhinosinusitis
  • Bacterial pharyngitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Tonsillitis

Although it is approved, some medical providers prescribe it for off-label uses such as the treatment of Erysipeloid and the prevention of infectious Endocarditis. Amoxicillin may also be prescribed to patients who have had knee replacements, hip replacements, or other prosthetic joints. It can also be used to treat periodontitis when combined with metronidazole to prevent infection during dental procedures. Amoxicillin is also thought to be effective in the treatment of Lyme disease.

Side Effects

Although not exhaustive, a list of potential side effects of taking Amoxicillin has been provided. If you experience any side effects that do not go away or impede your everyday activities, please contact your health care provider immediately.

Amoxicillin’s Most Common Side Effects Are as Follows:

  • Vomiting
  • Rash
  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach ache
  • Nausea
  • Headache

Amoxicillin can cause serious side effects such as hypersensitivity reactions and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in rare cases. If you experience any of these side effects, you should stop taking the medication and seek emergency medical attention right away.

Amoxicillin dosage

Amoxicillin’s Serious Side Effects Are as Follows:

  • Stools that are watery/bloody, with/without fever and stomach cramps
  • Face, eye, lip, tongue, and throat swelling
  • Swallowing and breathing difficulties
  • Peeling skin or blisters
  • Diarrhea that is severe
  • Wheezing
  • Hives
  • Itching
  • Rash

Before Taking Amoxicillin

Most adults and children can take amoxicillin, but they should not use it if they are allergic to any penicillin antibiotic. It is also not suitable for everyone; therefore, consult a doctor to ensure that amoxicillin is safe for consumption.

Inform the doctor ahead of time:

  • If you are allergic to amoxicillin, penicillin antibiotics, or any of the ingredients in amoxicillin tablets, capsules, or suspension, do not take it. Obtain a list of ingredients from your pharmacist.
  • Concerning any other prescription medications, nutritional supplements, vitamins, herbal products, or nonprescription medications you are taking or plan to take, particularly allopurinol, methotrexate, other antibiotics, blood thinners, birth control pills, and probenecid.
  • If you have a virus known as mono (mononucleosis).
  • If you have kidney disease or a history of allergic reactions such as rashes or hives.
  • In the event that you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or intend to become pregnant.
  • If you suffer from phenylketonuria (PKU). Aspartame, an artificial sweetener that forms phenylalanine, is found in some amoxicillin chewable tablets.
  • If you have recently received or are about to receive vaccinations


Amoxicillin capsules are usually taken three times a day at a dose of 250mg to 500mg. Children may require a lower dose. Nevertheless, the amount of dosage required depends on the patient’s condition, so getting dosage prescribed by doctors is advised. Amoxicillin liquid comes in two doses: 125mg and 250mg. This medication should be taken until the patient has finished the course and begins to feel better. If the treatment is discontinued too soon, the infection may reoccur.

Interactions Between Drugs

Before taking amoxicillin, make your doctor aware of any vitamins, supplements, or medications you are taking. This will allow them to advise you on which drug combinations are appropriate and which are not, when taking amoxicillin. For example:


Probenecid reduces amoxicillin renal tubular secretion but does not delay clavulanic acid renal excretion. Concurrent use with amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium may result in increased and prolonged amoxicillin blood concentrations. Probenecid should not be taken with other medications.

Anticoagulants Taken Orally

In patients receiving amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants, abnormal prolongation of prothrombin time (increased International Normalized Ratio) has been reported. When anticoagulants are prescribed alongside amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, appropriate monitoring should be performed. To maintain the desired level of anticoagulation, oral anticoagulant dose adjustments may be required.


Concurrent administration of allopurinol and amoxicillin raises the risk of rashes in patients receiving both drugs compared to patients receiving amoxicillin alone. It is unknown whether the allopurinol or the hyperuricemia in these patients is responsible for the potentiation of amoxicillin rashes.

Amoxicillin side effects

Oral Contraceptives

Amoxicillin may alter intestinal flora, resulting in decreased estrogen reabsorption and decreased efficacy of combined oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptives.


Penicillin may reduce methotrexate excretion, potentially increasing toxicity.

IMPORTANT: Take all of this medication unless otherwise directed by your doctor.


You should feel better in a few days after taking amoxicillin. Inform your doctor if you do not feel better after three days of taking amoxicillin. Also, notify them if you begin to feel worse at any time. If you require any additional assistance, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Mehta’s Hospitals.

  Diet To Be Followed To Prevent Kidney Stone

If you have kidney stones, you may need to follow a special healthy diet weight-loss plan. To begin, your healthcare provider will do blood and urine tests to determine what kind of risk factors you may have. Then, your healthcare provider will advise you on the dietary changes and scientific treatments you need to avoid kidney reappearing. A qualified kidney dietician can help you make significant dietary and lifestyle adjustments.

kidney stones

What is a kidney stone?

Kidney stones are difficult deposits fabricated from minerals and salts that form inner your kidneys. Weight-reduction plan, extra frame weight, some medical situations, and positive dietary supplements and medicines are many of the many causes of kidney stones. From your kidneys for your bladder, kidney stones can harm any element of your urinary tract. While urine will become focused, minerals crystallize and bind together, forming stones is a not unusual incidence.

Passing kidney stones can be pretty painful, but the stones typically motive no permanent harm if they’re diagnosed in a timely style. Depending on your situation, you could need nothing extra than to take ache medication and drink plenty of water to bypass a kidney stone. A surgical procedure can be required in a few instances, consisting of when stones come to be trapped within the urinary tract, are connected with a urinary adulterant, or create issues.


A few kidney stones are as small as a grain of sand. Others are as huge as a pebble. Some are as massive as a golf ball! As a standard rule, the larger the stone, the more noticeable are the signs.

The symptoms might be:

  • Excessive pain on either facet of your lower back
  • More vague ache or stomach ache that does not go away
  • Blood comes through urine
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fever and chills
  • Urine that smells awful or seems cloudy

The kidney stones start off evolved to hurt when it reasons irritation or blockage. This builds swiftly to severe pain. In maximum instances, kidney stones pass without inflicting harm-but normally no longer without inflicting lots of pain. Pain relievers can be the most remedy needed for small stones. In excessive cases, however, surgical treatment can be required.

kidney diet


Possible causes encompass drinking too little water, exercise ( an excessive amount of or too little), obesity, weight-loss surgical operation, or ingesting food with too much salt or sugar. Infections and family records are probably important in some human beings. Consuming too much correlates with an increasing chance of growing a kidney stone.

Tips to prevent kidney stones

                 Making wholesome alternatives and a few minor changes to your eating regimen may additionally assist prevent the improvement of kidney stones. Here are five diet tips to be followed to prevent kidney stones.

Drink Plenty Of Fluids

        The very best manner to prevent kidney stone formation is with the aid of staying hydrated in the course of the day. This is because a decrease in water consumption will bring about low urine and your urine will also emerge as extremely concentrated. As a result, a loss of water prevents urine salts from dissolving. They thus acquire and shape kidney stones.

Try and have citrus juices like lemonade and orange juice. The citrate found in these juices will assist inhibit the formation of crystal stones.

Consume Rich-Calcium Foods

Contrary to famous belief, a weight-reduction plan low in calcium can genuinely increase your threat of getting kidney stones. This happens due to elevated oxalate ranges inside the frame. Oxalate is a herbal substance found in ingredients including beans, beets, and darkish leafy veggies. Without calcium to bind with, oxalate levels height inside the body, accordingly growing kidney stones.

Natural assets of calcium, like milk or paneer, but, do now not pose as plenty of a threat as calcium dietary supplements do whilst taken by themselves. Make it a factor to handiest have calcium dietary supplements at the side of your meals to decrease your kidney stone danger.

Lower Your Sodium Intake

High consumption of salt on your eating regimen can also increase your chance of growing kidney stones. This is because high tiers of salt in urine may additionally save you calcium reabsorption from the urine to the blood. This results in excessive accumulation of calcium in the urine, ensuing in the improvement of kidney stones. Keep away from excessive-sodium ingredients inclusive of processed foods (chips, salty cookies) soups and vegetables, condiments (soy sauce, mustard), and meals containing baking soda.

Avoid Renal Stone Forming Foods

The consumption of foods wealthy in oxalates can increase your hazard of getting kidney stones. That is due to the fact oxalate is a natural compound observed in foods that bind with calcium in the urine, thereby, forming kidney stones. Proscribing the consumption of these meals might also help prevent kidney stones from forming.

Foods rich in oxalates consist of sweets, spinach, beetroots, peanuts, soy products, wheat bran, and sweet potatoes. Having much less of those ingredients can assist lessen the threat of kidney stones.



Limit Your Meat Intake

Everyday intake of high amounts of meat can bring about a multiplied chance of growing uric acid troubles and kidney stones. Limit your consumption of red meat, fish, and pork to avoid the chance. Consult your doctor or dietician for the quantity and kind of meat you could eat on a weekly foundation because completely cutting down your protein consumption isn’t beneficial as this results in weakness within the body.