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Symptoms of Lipoma

A lipoma is a lump under the skin that occurs due to an overgrowth of fat cells. Doctors consider lipomas to be benign tumors, which mean that they are non-cancerous growths.

Symptoms of Lipoma

They usually appear as small, soft lumps. They’re typically less than 2 inches wide. You could have more than one.

When you press on the lipoma, it may feel doughy. It will move easily with finger pressure. They don’t normally hurt, but they can cause pain if they bump against nearby nerves or have blood vessels running through them.

When to see a doctor

People should always tell their doctor if they notice changes in a lipoma or if more lumps appear. These changes might involve the lipoma:

  • increasing in size or suddenly growing very quickly
  • being painful
  • becoming red or hot
  • turning into a hard or immovable lump
  • causing visible changes in the overlying skin

When is removal necessary?

Lipomas are usually harmless, so most people do not need to have surgery to remove them. People may want to remove a lipoma that:

  • is cancerous
  • is large or growing quickly
  • causes bothersome symptoms, such as pain and discomfort
  • interferes with normal body functions
  • causes distress for cosmetic reasons
  • the doctor is unable to confirm is a lipoma rather than another type of tumor

When to Call a Doctor

If you notice a lump or swelling on your body, have a doctor check it out. They can let you know whether it’s a harmless lipoma or something that needs more tests.

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Fits and Seizure

A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. It can cause changes in your behavior, movements or feelings, and in levels of consciousness. If you have two or more seizures or a tendency to have recurrent seizures, you have epilepsy.

There are many types of seizures, which range in severity. Seizure types vary by where and how they begin in the brain. Most seizures last from 30 seconds to two minutes. A seizure that lasts longer than five minutes is a medical emergency.

Seizures are more common than you might think. Seizures can happen after a stroke, a closed head injury, an infection such as meningitis or another illness. Many times, though, the cause of a seizure is unknown.

In adults, the most common cause of a seizure, also known as a convulsion or fit, is epilepsy. However, it can be caused by other things, including a head injury, alcohol poisoning, lack of oxygen, after taking certain drugs, or if someone with diabetes has a ‘hypo’ where their blood glucose is too low.

Epilepsy is a condition that affects the brain and can cause repeated seizures, which are often sudden and dramatic.

Signs and symptoms

Look for:

  • sudden loss of responsiveness
  • a rigid body with an arching back
  • noisy, difficult breathing
  • start of jerky uncontrolled movements (uncontrolled)
  • saliva at the mouth, possibly blood stained if they have bitten their tongue or lip


Nerve cells (neurons) in the brain create, send and receive electrical impulses, which allow the brain’s nerve cells to communicate. Anything that disrupts these communication pathways can lead to a seizure.

The most common cause of seizures is epilepsy. But not every person who has a seizure has epilepsy.

When to see a doctor

Seek immediate medical help if any of the following occurs:

  • The seizure lasts more than five minutes.
  • Breathing or consciousness doesn’t return after the seizure stops.
  • A second seizure follows immediately.
  • You have a high fever.
  • You’re experiencing heat exhaustion.
  • You’re pregnant.
  • You have diabetes.
  • You’ve injured yourself during the seizure.

If you experience a seizure for the first time, seek medical advice.

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Know more about Mouth Ulcer

Mouth ulcers are painful areas in the mouth and gums. They are also known as canker sores.

While mostly harmless, mouth ulcers can be extremely uncomfortable and make it difficult for some people to eat, drink, and brush their teeth.

Mouth ulcers range in size, and the exact symptoms of the mouth ulcer will depend on what type of ulcer a person has.

Mouth Ulcers Causes:

There is no definite cause behind mouth ulcers. However, certain factors and triggers have been identified. These include:

  • minor mouth injury from dental work, hard brushing, sports injury, or accidental bite
  • toothpastes and mouth rinses that contain sodium lauryl sulfate
  • food sensitivities to acidic foods like strawberries, citrus, and pineapples, and other trigger foods like chocolate and coffee
  • lack of essential vitamins, especially B-12, zinc, folate, and iron
  • allergic response to mouth bacteria
  • dental braces
  • hormonal changes during menstruation
  • emotional stress or lack of sleep
  • bacterial, viral, or fungal infections

Are mouth ulcers cancerous?

  • Mouth cancer and mouth ulcers are distinctive in their symptoms. However, as mentioned earlier, new or persistent ulcers require checking.
  • There are some fundamental differences between mouth ulcers and what might be cancer:
  • Mouth ulcers are often painful whereas mouth cancer is not.
  • Mouth ulcers will clear up in about 2 weeks, whereas mouth cancer will not go away and will often spread.
  • Mouth cancer patches may be rough, hard, and not easy to scrape off.
  • Mouth cancer is often a mix of red and white areas or large white areas that appear on the tongue, the back of the mouth, the gums, or on the cheeks.
  • Mouth cancer is often linked to heavy drinking or tobacco use.

What are some ways to treat mouth ulcers?

Most mouth ulcers don’t need treatment. However, if you get mouth ulcers often or they’re extremely painful, a number of treatments can decrease pain and healing time. These include:

  • using a rinse of saltwater and baking soda
  • placing milk of magnesia on the mouth ulcer
  • covering mouth ulcers with baking soda paste
  • using over-the-counter benzocaine (topical anesthetic) products like Orajel or Anbesol
  • applying ice to canker sores
  • using a mouth rinse that contains a steroid to reduce pain and swelling
  • using topical pastes
  • placing damp tea bags on your mouth ulcer
  • taking nutritional supplements like folic acid, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc
  • trying natural remedies such as chamomile tea, echinacea, myrrh, and licorice root
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Personal Hygiene for Kids

Teaching children as they grow is a very engaging and challenging process. Those tiny little hands are always reaching out to grab everything they see. Although this may be a part of their growth and development when they are babies, it is not quite safe for children to come in contact with everything they see.

Having good hygiene habits involves more than just hand-washing. Teaching your kids to have a healthy hygiene routine when they’re young can create habits that last throughout their lives. Use this head-to-toenails guide, and teach your kids good hygiene habits.

Oral Hygiene

It is also important that you take care of your child’s mouth and teeth. Without proper care, your child can develop cavities, bad breath, and other oral diseases. Although baby teeth fall out eventually, they help your child chew food and also assist in speech development. Here are some ways you can keep your child’s

  • Make sure that your child brushes his/her teeth at least two times a day.
  • Always use a child’s toothbrush as they’re smaller and also soft on the developing gums.
  • In the first 12 months, only wipe the child’s gums with a clean cloth. When the first set of teeth appear, wipe the surface gently with a toothbrush and some water.
  • Let your child start using toothpaste when they are around two years old.
  • Sweet food shouldn’t be left to linger around the teeth for too long as it can cause cavities.
  • If the child has wiggly teeth by the age of 6, let him/her wiggle the tooth so that it falls off without much pain or bleeding.

If you are wondering how you could teach your little one to bush his/her teeth, here’s some information that can help you teach your child the right way of brushing teeth. In the beginning, brush their teeth yourself and slowly teach them the right way to do it.

Hand Hygiene for Kids

Washing hands frequently can reduce the chances of contracting diseases such as diarrhoea. The simplest way to practise hand hygiene is by teaching your child how to wash hands thoroughly. Show your child a step-by-step demonstration on how to wash hands and ensure he/she get all the steps right.

Hygiene for kids includes keeping their hands clean at all times. Let your child form a habit of washing his/her hands every time they:

  • Use the bathroom
  • Are about to eat something
  • Are done eating their food
  • Play outside
  • Meet a sick friend
  • Sneeze or cough
  • Clean the house
  • Touch an animal
  • Come home from outside, whether the school or park.

Hair Care for Kids

Most young children can get away with washing their hair two or three times per week. Washing hair too often can dry out young scalps, making them more prone to dandruff.

As kids enter their tweens and teens, the hormonal effects of puberty take hold, sometimes making their hair greasy. Washing their hair with shampoo may be necessary at least every other day.

Nail Hygiene for Kids

Children’s nails accumulate a lot of dirt and microbes as they often play outside and in the sand, mud or simply dirty grounds. Children and adults alike use their limbs extensively, which causes nails to get injured or contaminated. Use the following tips to inculcate nail hygiene in your child:

  • Kids tend to bite their nails. Discourage them from doing so as they can end up ingesting the microbes present under their nails.
  • Cut your child’s nails frequently.
  • Teach your child to scrub and wash under his/her nails thoroughly to ensure that they are clean at all times.
  • Help your child to wash his/her hands every time they pet an animal, play outside, cough or sneeze, and before and after eating.
  • Also, pay attention to your child’s toenails and cut them regularly.

Bathing Hygiene for Kids

The best way to keep your child clean and healthy at all times is by giving him/her a bath regularly. Some bath hygiene habits include:

  • Teaching your child to bathe twice in a day – before they go to school and after they come back.
  • Encourage him/her to gently scrub the armpits, groin, legs, and feet.
  • Ensure that they apply soap every time they take a shower.
  • Keep an eye to see that your child takes extra care when cleaning his/her face as the facial skin is more delicate.


Toilet Hygiene for Kids

The bathroom or the toilet is one of the places in the house that contain the maximum germs. As long as you keep the bathroom clean and teach your child the right toilet hygiene, you can avoid all the diseases likely to spread by using an unclean bathroom.

  • Teach your child to wipe or wash after passing stool.
  • Teach them how to flush on their own.
  • Remind them to wash their hands every time they use the bathroom.
  • A good way to help them learn is by staying with them and guiding them through the whole process. Also, have your child look at the wipe every time they wipe after potty.

Tips to Teach Your Kids Personal Hygiene

You can’t teach your child all the habits mentioned above overnight. Teaching personal hygiene to kids will require patience. Some accidents might happen here and there, but avoid scolding your child as they are still learning. Here are some tips to follow when teaching your child about hygiene:

  • Explain the Difference: Start by explaining about all the good and bad habits. You can start with something your child already knows.
  • Explain the Purpose: Explain to your child why he/she should maintain good hygiene and the reason behind why something is good or bad.
  • Praise and Encourage: Praise your child when they do something good. It can be as simple as washing hands or sneezing into a kerchief.
  • Start With the Basics: Have your child wash his/her hands first and then move onto bigger things like brushing, bathing, food hygiene, etc.
  • Practice Before You Preach – Children are smarter than we think them to be. They are observant and know when you are trying to trick them. Always ensure you practice all the hygiene habits yourself before teaching them any. Most of the times, children watch you and learn. You wouldn’t have to teach them the habits separately then.
  • Educate Them: Tell your child about the different kinds of germs and microbes that cause diseases. Also, explain the things that happen if he/she gets affected by germs.

Make Learning Fun: This way, they can remember better. Try including games and other fun activities whenever you teach them about hygiene.

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Birth Control: Different types of Contraception

Birth control is the use of various devices, drugs, agents, sexual practices, or surgical procedures to prevent conception or pregnancy.

It enables people to choose when they want to have a baby.

A range of devices and treatments are available for both men and women that can help prevent pregnancy.

Some methods are more reliable than others. How well a method work often depends on how carefully it is used.

The contraceptive pill, for example, used correctly, is over 99 percent effective. However, because people make mistakes, as many as 9 women each year will become pregnant while using it.

Different types of Contraception

Barrier devices prevent the sperm from meeting the egg. They may be combined with spermicide, which kills the sperm.


The male condom forms a barrier and prevents pregnancy by stopping sperm from entering the vagina. It is placed over the penis before sexual intercourse begins. A condom is made of polyurethane or latex.

Cervical cap

A cervical cap is a thimble-shaped, latex rubber barrier device that fits over the cervix and blocks sperm from entering the uterus. The cap should be about one-third filled with spermicide before inserting. It stays in place by suction.


The contraceptive injection, or “the shot,” is a progestin-only, long-acting, reversible, birth-control drug.

The shot is injected every 3 months at a doctor’s office. It prevents pregnancy by stopping the woman from releasing an egg.

The intrauterine device (IUD)

The intrauterine device (IUD), or coil, is a small, flexible T-shaped device that is placed in the uterus by a physician.

Contraceptive pill

The combined contraceptive pill is taken daily. It contains two hormones, estrogen and progestin. The hormones stop the release of the egg, or ovulation. They also make the lining of the uterus thinner.

Vaginal ring

The contraceptive vaginal ring is a flexible, plastic ring that releases a low dose of progestin and estrogen over 3 week. It prevents ovulation and thickens the cervical mucus, so that sperm cannot move easily.

Emergency “morning after” contraception

Emergency contraceptive pills, or the “morning-after pill,” may prevent pregnancy after intercourse. It prevents ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of an embryo

Permanent contraception

In females

Tubal ligation: This is a form of female sterilization. The surgeon will cut, block, or burn the fallopian tubes, or a combination of these methods, to seal them and prevent future fertilization.

Tubal implant: A coil is placed in the female’s fallopian tubes. Tissue grows around it, blocking the tubes. It can take 3 months to work.

In males

Vasectomy: This is surgery to make a man sterile. The tubes through which sperm pass into the ejaculate are cut or blocked

Contraception is a powerful tool both for preventing unwanted pregnancy. Some methods, such as the male condom, can also reduce the risk of an STI. However, it must be used correctly to do so.

No method of birth control is 100 percent effective

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What are Undescended Testicles?

The testicles (or “testes”) are 2 organs that hang in a pouch-like skin sac (the scrotum) below the penis. The testicles are where sperm and testosterone (the male sex hormone) are made. The scrotum keeps the testicles in a cooler setting than the body. This is because sperm can’t grow at body temperature. During childhood, sperm in the testicles go through a process that results in mature sperm at puberty.

What are Undescended Testicles?

An undescended testicle (or “testis”) is when it fails to drop into the normal place in the scrotum. Your child’s health care provider can find this during a routine exam. This issue is found in about 3 or 4 out of 100 newborns (and up to 21 out of 100 premature newborns). Luckily, about half of these testicles will drop on their own during the first 3 months of life. But testicles won’t drop on their own after 6 months of age. Thus, about 1 or 2 out of 100 boys with undescended testicles will need treatment.

What Causes It?

Doctors aren’t sure why it happens. They think it’s related to genes, the mother’s health, and outside influences that change how hormones and nerves normally work.

  • Even though the cause isn’t clear, certain factors might make an undescended testicle more likely:
  • An earlier-than-expected birth
  • Family history of them or other problems with how genitals develop
  • Health conditions, such as Down syndrome, that affect how a fetus grows
  • Low birth weight

Contact by the parents with certain chemicals (pesticides) that kill bugs — these are often used on farms

It may also be more likely if the mother:

  • Has diabetes (type 1, type 2, or gestational)
  • Is obese
  • Smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol during pregnancy

What are the symptoms of undescended testes in a child?

Symptoms can be a bit different in each child. The most common sign is when a healthcare provider can’t feel the testes during an exam. Most children don’t have symptoms when they have an undescended testicle.



In most cases, your doctor finds the problem as part of a regular check-up soon after birth.

If your doctor thinks there’s a problem, he may try to rule out other causes, such as:

Ectopic testicles. This is a similar condition where the testicles don’t fall into place. Your doctor can check for this as part of a physical exam.

Retractile testicles. Your doctor will see if he can gently move the testicle into the scrotum with his hand. If he can do that, then it’s a retractile testicle.


Very often, the testicle moves into place within a few months. At first, you’ll want to wait and see how things go with regular check-ups. If it doesn’t drop into the scrotum by 6 months, your doctor will likely suggest surgery.

Surgery is the most common treatment, and it almost always works. It’s usually done when the baby is 6-12 months old to get the most benefit. Early treatment can lower the chances that your boy will have problems with fertility later in life.

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What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

Symptoms include changes to the menstrual cycle and excess hair growth. Untreated, it can lead to infertility and other complications. The exact cause is unknown.

Early diagnosis and treatment are recommended. Weight loss may also decrease the risk of associated health risks, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, and high blood pressure.

Some of the symptoms are as follows:

  • Acne
  • Weight gain and trouble losing weight
  • Excess hair on the face and body. Often women get thicker and darker facial hair and more hair on the chest, belly, and back.
  • Thinning hair on the scalp
  • Irregular periods. Often women with PCOS have fewer than nine periods a year. Some women have no periods. Others have very heavy bleeding.
  • Fertility problems. Many women who have PCOS have trouble getting pregnant (infertility).
  • Depression


Complications of PCOS can include:

  • Infertility
  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
  • Miscarriage or premature birth
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis — a severe liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver
  • Metabolic syndrome — a cluster of conditions including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes
  • Sleep apnea
  • Depression, anxiety and eating disorders
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer)

Obesity is associated with PCOS and can worsen complications of the disorder.


When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have concerns about your menstrual periods, if you’re experiencing infertility or if you have signs of excess androgen such as worsening hirsutism, acne and male-pattern baldness.

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Kidney Stones – Symptoms, Causes – An Overview

Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salt that form inside your kidneys.

Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys. However, they can develop anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of these parts:

  • kidneys
  • ureters
  • bladder
  • urethra

What are the causes of kidney stones?

You may also be more likely to have kidney stones if:

  • You have had kidney stones before.
  • Someone in your family has had kidney stones.
  • You don’t drink enough water.
  • You follow a diet high in protein, sodium and/or sugar.
  • You are overweight or obese.
  • You have had gastric bypass surgery or another intestinal surgery.
  • You have polycystic kidney disease or another cystic kidney disease.
  • You have a certain condition that causes your urine to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium.
  • You have a condition that causes swelling or irritation in your bowel or your joints.
  • You take certain medicines, such as diuretics (water pills) or calcium-based antacids.


A kidney stone usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters — the tubes connecting the kidneys and the bladder. If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful.

At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:

  • Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain or burning sensation while urinating
  • Other signs and symptoms may include:
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • A persistent need to urinate, urinating more often than usual or urinating in small amounts
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

Pain caused by a kidney stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity — as the stone moves through your urinary tract.

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Common Gynecological Cancer in Women

Gynecological cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Lakhs of women are diagnosed with gynecological cancers and hence, it is important to be aware of the various types of gynecological cancers.

What are the types of gynecologic cancers, and who’s at risk?

There are five major types:

  • Cervical cancer
  • Uterine (endometrial) cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Vaginal cancer
  • Vulvar cancer

The following factors may increase your risk of developing gynecologic cancer:

Human papillomavirus (HPV): Cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancers are often linked to HPV, a common sexually transmitted infection. For this reason, practicing safe sex (using a condom) is a key strategy for prevention. An HPV vaccine is available for girls and young women (between the ages of 11 and 26).

Age: Older age is another known risk factor. For example, the average patient with uterine cancer is 63 years old at diagnosis.

Genetics: Up to 10% of patients with ovarian cancer have a family history of the disease. A woman whose mother, daughter or sister had ovarian, Fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer might choose to undergo genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. (Mutations in these genes can increase your risk for ovarian cancer.)

Uterine cancer

Uterine cancer is cancer that begins in the uterus and is one of the most common types of gynecological cancers. Though it can happen to anyone, some factors which increase the risk of uterine cancer are obesity, diabetes, hypertension, use of estrogen without progesterone, etc.


  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting after menopause.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen that persists for more than two weeks.
  • Bleeding between periods.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.

Cervical cancer

A large number of women in India are diagnosed with this cancer every year, and unfortunately, due to lack of awareness and poor cancer screening facilities, a majority of women are diagnosed when cancer has reached advanced stages


  • Vaginal discharge.
  • Vaginal odour.
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is another common gynecological cancer. There are three types of it: epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell cancer, and stromal cell cancer. Of these, epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common one accounting for about 85 percent of all ovarian cancers.


  • Extreme and sudden onset of bloating.
  • Difficulty in eating or loss of appetite.
  • Increased frequency or urgency of urination.
  • Pain in the pelvic or abdominal region.
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What is tongue-tie?

Tongue-tie, also known as ankyloglossia, is a congenital condition (the child is born with it) in which a child’s tongue remains attached to the bottom (floor) of his or her mouth. This happens when the thin strip of tissue (lingual frenulum) connecting the tongue and the floor of the mouth is shorter than normal. The short frenulum can restrict tongue mobility. Ankyloglossia has been associated with difficulties with breastfeeding and problems with speech.

Tongue-tie mostly affects infants and younger children, but older children and adults may also live with the condition.


It’s often found because of problems breastfeeding. You may notice your baby:

  • Can’t latch well
  • Tends to chew more than suck
  • Doesn’t gain weight the way you’d expect
  • Feeds for a long time, takes a short break, then feeds for another long stretch
  • Is fussy when trying to feed
  • Makes a clicking sound while feeding
  • Seems hungry all the time

Along with symptoms, you may hurt during and after breastfeeding. You may also have sore or cracked nipples. But tongue-tie isn’t the only reason there may be breastfeeding problems. So if you’re having them, talk to your doctor.

You might also notice your baby’s tongue:

  • Can’t move far from side to side
  • Can’t reach the upper gums or roof of the mouth
  • Can’t stick out past the gums
  • Has a V shape or heart shape at its tip when it’s sticking out

When to see a doctor

See a doctor if:

  • Your baby has signs of tongue-tie that cause problems, such as having trouble breast-feeding
  • A speech-language pathologist thinks your child’s speech is affected by tongue-tie
  • Your older child complains of tongue problems that interfere with eating, speaking or reaching the back teeth
  • You’re bothered by your own symptoms of tongue-tie
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